There are two major way to label inner proteins, structures or organnelles for live cell imaging. The most common method is fusing the studied protein to a fluorescent protein. A second approach is the addition of labeling agents from outside the cells. However, many labels cannot penetrate through the cell membrane. This is true to some, but not all dyes, but more importantly, to larger agents, such as antibodies or DNA/RNA oligos. To allow these agents to enter cells, researchers can use microinjection, electroporation, bead-loading, or transfection (e.g. of short oligos).
In a paper just published in eLife, a new technique is described to form temporary holed in the cell membrane. These holes allow delivery of any labeling agent into cells. Continue reading
Posted in cytoskeleton, epi, HaloTag, Journal club, membranes, Organelles, Super resolution, Transport & Trafficking
Tagged GFP, HaloTag, Kinesin, Mammalian cell, mitochondria, peroxisomes, STORM, super-resolution
Transcription factors (TFs) have a fundamental role is regulating gene expression. The basic model, based on numerous biochemical analyses, has determined where TFs bind (usually at specific sites at or near promoters), when they bind the DNA (at a resolution of minutes/hours) and what do they do there (induce/repress transcription. Duh!). However, much is yet unknown. One aspect that is fairly unknown is the dynamics of how TFs search for their binding sites, bind them and later dissociate, particularly at the single molecule level. To explore this, the Transcription Imaging Consortium (TIC) at Janelia Research Center (JRC) (it used to be Janelia Farm, but the “farm” part was removed from the name. oh well) applied sophisticated imaging techniques to measure the dynamics of two TFs, SOX2 and OCT4 in the nuclei of live embryonic stem (ES)cells. Their results were published in Cell almost a year ago.
Posted in epi, FCS, Gene expression, HaloTag, Journal club, multi-focus microscopy, TIRF
Tagged HaloTag, HHMI Janelia, Mammalian cell, quantitative microscopy, single molecule, transcription