Continuing with the Brief communications section:
Rapid, accurate particle tracking by calculation of radial symmetry centers
Tracking single particles is a major challenge, since in many cases the particles are smaller than the pixel size. Several image analysis methods have been developed to analyze subpixel localization of particles. Here, Raghuveer Parthasarathy describes a new approach to calculate subpixel localization of particles, using radial symmetry analysis. Although the accuracy of his algorithm is similar to that of other algorithms (Gaussian fittings such as Non-Linear Least Square minimization – NLLS and Maximum likelihood estimations –MLE), his calculations are ~100 faster than other algorithms.
For those of you who do single particle analysis and super-resolution microscopy, this algorithm may be very helpful.
Rational design of true monomeric and bright photoactivatable fluorescent proteins
As already mentioned in the previous post, photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) and Stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM) are two of the techniques used in super-resolution microscopy. In many cases PALM/STORM use photoactivatable fluorescent proteins (PA-FPs). The efficiency of super-resolution microscopy relies on the properties of these PA-FPs, such as brightness, photostability, pH stability, oligomeric state, maturation rate, photoswitching/activation yields etc…
EoSFP, which was cloned in 2004 from the scleractinian coral Lobophyllia hemprichii and furhter engineered, is a green-to-red photoswitchable protein with the highest photon output of all PA-FPs. Upon UV irradiation, it permanently switches its emission peak from 516 to 581 (excitation is at 505). Monomeric form, mEoSFP and mEos2 were developed (mEoSFP is less used, since its chromofore does not maturate at 37°C, limiting the use to non-mammalian cells).
Here, the authors claim than mEoS2 forms oligomers at high concentrations, which may limit the use of this protein as a fusion partner to the studied protein, and can also skew super-resolution analysis that assumes only monomeric mEoS2 forms. Therefore, the authors solved the crystal structure of mEoS2. Based on the structure, they developed improved, true monomeric variants (mEoS3.1 & mEoS3.2), which are also brighter and mature faster.
Confocal images of HEK293 cells transiently transfected with plasmids encoding indicated fusions and imaged at the middle layer (top) or near the plasma membrane (bottom). See the differnces between mEoS2 and mEoS3! Source: Zhang et al. Nature Methods 9,727–729(2012)
In the supplementary data of this paper you will find a lot of data on the different mEoS variants (not only 2, 3.1 and 3.2 but others as well).
The lesson to be learned here – the properties of the fluorescent protein that you are using to tag your protein of interest may affect the properties of the studied fusion protein/organelle/cell and these factors should always be taken into consideration.
Tracking mitochondria dynamics in live HeLa cells. The large box: Mitochondria in HeLa cells tagged with mEoS3.2-mito prior to photoswitching. Rectangle – area of UV illumination to switch color. boxes on left: time-lapse of mEoS3.2-mito only in the activated region. Source: Zhang et al. Nature Methods 9,727–729(2012)
Multiview light-sheet microscope for rapid in toto imaging
Embryogenesis and morphogenesis are highly dynamic processes that are difficult to image since it involves multicellular samples in the millimeter range. In such cases, it is difficult to image subcellular processes on the one hand, and get a clear 3-D view of the entire sample (which need to be properly rotated). Some techniques that allow sample rotation exist, and an emerging method called selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM), are helpful in following such processes on whole embryos. However, samples are required to rotate in several angles, often not keeping with the same axis, and the time resolution required for each rotation sometimes exceeds the biological dynamics. Here, research from the lab of Lars Hufnagel developed a new microscopy system, which they term MuVi-SPIM, consisting of four arms (with objectives) that can perform as illuminating or detecting objective. This allows rapid four 3D-view imaging of the sample. Very nifty!
3D image reconstruction of a Drosophila embryo expressing the membrane marker Gap43-mCherry in cycle 14. Alternating green and magenta colors correspond to the image contributions from the eight different views. Inset shows a close-up view of the image fusion on the boundary between two different views. Source: Krzic et al. Nature Methods 9,730–733(2012)
The next parts will review the four articles in this issue.
Parthasarathy R (2012). Rapid, accurate particle tracking by calculation of radial symmetry centers. Nature methods PMID: 22688415
Zhang M, Chang H, Zhang Y, Yu J, Wu L, Ji W, Chen J, Liu B, Lu J, Liu Y, Zhang J, Xu P, & Xu T (2012). Rational design of true monomeric and bright photoactivatable fluorescent proteins. Nature methods, 9 (7), 727-729 PMID: 22581370
Krzic U, Gunther S, Saunders TE, Streichan SJ, & Hufnagel L (2012). Multiview light-sheet microscope for rapid in toto imaging. Nature methods, 9 (7), 730-733 PMID: 22660739